If you are working on a paper in the APA style, you know that formatting APA citations can be a complicated task that requires a lot of patience.
The following are highlights of some of the more important aspects of 6th Edition APA formatting, but do not constitute the whole of APA style. Please consult the manual held on reserve at Boatwright Library for a complete explanation of publishing guidelines.
Jeff Kahn from the University of Illinois. General Guidelines When to Cite You should cite authors who have directly influenced your writing, whether it be their ideas, theories, or empirical data. Citing an article implies that you have read the work you cited, so do not cite authors indirectly i.
Cite any facts or figures that are not common knowledge. How many authors should you cite? For a standard empirical article, aim for 1 - 2 sources that best represent each key point you want to make.
For a literature review, you will probably use more. This is because reviews are meant to introduce readers to the spectrum of information written about a certain topic.
If you are directly quoting an author, also include the page or paragraph number. Ending punctuation goes outside the parentheses. The study aimed to measure the participants' preferences in different types of music based on their age Baker, If you mention the author's name in your sentence, then put the publication year immediately following the name.
Baker measured correlations between age and music genre preference. One Work by Two Authors Include both authors' last names and the article's date of publication in parenthesis. A classic study by Bandura, Ross and Ross showed strong evidence that children as young as two imitate the observed aggressive behavior of adults.
Mean aggression scores for children exposed to aggressive adult models were significantly greater than those of children in non-aggressive or control conditions Bandura et al.
One Work by Six or More Authors From the get-go, cite only the last name of the first author, followed by "et al," "and others," or "and colleagues. Groups as Authors When citing an organization as an author, write out the organization the first time they are cited and list the abbreviation in the parenthetical citation.
Use double quotation marks inside the parentheses for articles, webpages, or chapter titles; italicize titles of periodicals, books, brochures, or reports.
Arrange two or more works by the same author s by date of publication. When citing more than one work by the same first author, add a suffix of a, b, c, etc. This should be done sparingly. Also, use them when you are stating test items or participant directions verbatim.
Try not to quote an entire sentence, as it makes the writing very choppy and usually comes off as lazy. If the quote is in the middle of your own sentence, end the quoted passage with quotation marks and put the parenthetical citation immediately after the passage, followed by any necessary punctuation.
Then continue with the sentence as it would be normally. Place the parenthetical citation at the end of the block, after the end punctuation. Double-space all of the quote.
Directly quoting online material In your parenthetical citation, give the author, year, and page numbers if possible. If there is no pagination, refer to the paragraph a quote was taken from. You may also change the punctuation mark at the end of a sentence to fit syntax.
All other changes, including italicizing or omitting words, must be indicated. Note that this only applied to direct quotes, not paraphrasing. Ordering Guidelines Alphabetization Rules. Order of Several Works by One Author.
Single-author entries by the same author are ordered by year of publication. Single-author entries come before multiple-author entries beginning with the same last name, regardless of publication year. Formatting Guidelines References should contain the author s' name spublication date, title, and publication information.APA Format Citation Guide.
This is a complete guide to APA (American Psychological Association) in-text and reference list citations.
This easy-to-use, comprehensive guide makes citing any source easy. APA Style (6th Edition) (printable version here)APA (American Psychological Association) style is the standard method of publishing one’s writing in psychology as well as other social sciences such as nursing, anthropology, sociology, business and gender studies (APA, , p.
xv). APA Format for Quotes or Quotations Whether you are citing direct or short quotations in, there are some general guidelines that must be kept in mind.
This short article covers a precise detail regarding APA formatting for quotes/ quotations. All of the following citations of a direct quote are in correct APA Style, citing the author, year, and page number.
Examples According to Palladino and Wade (), “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (p. ). Writers Workshop: Writer Resources.
Writing Tips; Grammar Handbook; Citation Styles; ESL Resources; American Psychological Association (APA): In-Text Citation Basic Format. Note that on pfmlures.com, when using the EasyBib citation generator, it will format your references list, alphabetized and indented, and ready to hand in!
How to Format an APA Style Paper: Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA’s guidelines.