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Either term is generally acceptable when referring to North American people indigenous to the United States — although some individuals may have a preference, and others may feel being called "Indian" is inappropriate or even offensive.
But as some experts and scholars point out, however, "American Indian" refers specifically to the aboriginal peoples of the lower 48 states — while "Native American" includes Alaska Natives as well. First Nations generally refers to tribal groups indigenous to Canada — it is generally considered incorrect to refer to U.
The term "American Indian" is generally preferred by news media and many academic environments when referencing Native peoples of the lower 48 states. This article uses the term "American Indian" to reference only the aboriginal Indian people of the contiguous United States.
Our California Indian Network of websites uses "Native American Indian" terminology to aid the search engines in locating and presenting our information, it has no meaning beyond that. First-person historical record from a tribal elder: How do I know this to be true?
Because I was there. I was one of the many militant tribal youth from second generation Mission Indian Federation families. Because many Native American Indian tribes have occupied North America for generations or more — this article excludes non-Native Americans from our "Native" designation.
When we capitalize the "N" in Native, we are talking specifically about Native American tribal peoples. I am an Indian, American Indian. I prefer 'American Indian' because anyone born in the western hemisphere is a 'native American. Many millions of American citizens have Native American ancestry in their family trees, but that does not make them "American Indian" in the eyes of the United States government.
For certain administrative purposes, the U. Because many Native American people are no longer actively associated with a particular reservation or tribal band — they are sometimes referred to as "urban Indians. Being federally recognized by the U.
The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of is a truth-in-advertising law that prohibits misrepresentation in marketing of American Indian or Alaska Native arts and crafts products within the United States.
It is illegal to offer or display for sale, or sell any art or craft product in a manner that falsely suggests it is Indian produced, an Indian product, or the product of a particular Indian or Indian Tribe or Indian arts and crafts organization, resident within the United States It must be frustrating for people with Native American ancestry and professional commitments to their cultural art not to be able to legally sell or promote their work as Indian made.
Tribal enrollment terminology is often used in tribal constitutions, formal BIA documents, and tribal enrollment ordinances American Indian Policy Center.
Various types of tribal rolls are used by the Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA and tribal governments to determine who is eligible for citizenship in various Indian nations.
Individual tribal bands possess exclusive control to determine their own membership or citizenship or rolls. Tribal governments formally list their members in tribal "rolls" and tribal members must meet a band's unique criteria for enrollment. The Blackfeet Nation has an interesting website dedicated to Tribal Enrollment.
Web portal includes tips about how to get started researching your family tree, BIA resources, DNA testing, what are the Dawes Rolls, and how to find, qualify and receive federal programs available to Native Americans.
How many unrecognized Native American tribes are there in the U. Becoming a federally-recognized Indian tribe is an involved and lengthy legal process with stringent tribal and federal guidelines that must be met and approved. How have tribes become federally-recognized in the past? Many tribes were originally recognized by treaties they negotiated with the U.
Still other tribes were granted federal recognition by acts of Congress, federal court decisions, presidential executive orders or other federal administrative actions. Some tribes are currently in the process of becoming federally recognized.
Inthe Interior Department issued regulations governing the Federal Acknowledgment Process FAP to handle requests for federal recognition from Indian groups whose character and history varied widely in a uniform manner.
These regulations — 25 C. Part 83 — were revised in and are still in effect. By Act of Congress, By the administrative procedures under 25 C. Part 83, or By decision of a United States court.
However, a tribe whose relationship with the United States has been expressly terminated by Congress may not use the Federal Acknowledgment Process.
The study of the theories and philosophies of law From Tribal sovereignty, to historical treaties with the U. The status of tribes as sovereign, self-governing nations is affirmed and upheld by international treaties, U. Congress or the U. Sovereignty experts explain that tribes are inherently sovereign, meaning they do not trace their existence to the United States of America.Free softball papers, essays, and research papers.
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