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The key automatic data collection technologies include bar coding, magnetic stripe, radio frequency data communication, radio frequency identification, voice data collection, machine vision, optical character recognition, and smart cards.
Bar coding is an industry standardized symbol consisting of bars and spaces of various widths that are read by optical scanning devices. The width and position of the bars are actually coded combinations of numbers, letters or punctuation, used to "identify the item, its producer and any other piece of information necessary to control its movement".
BG1 The item is scanned, all its data is transmitted directly into a computer via electrical impulses, generated from light reflections from the bars and spaces. The impulses are measured by a decoder, translated into binary code then transmitted to the computer. This technology is optimal for rapidly moving items commonly found on conveying systems within the retail and manufacturing arenas.
Magnetic stripe technology however, was initially instituted by the financial services industry to identify accounts and as a means of security. The magnetic stripe records greater volumes of information than many of the other aforementioned technologies, including bar coding. It provides a flexible format, with higher durability, and is highly secure.
Data is encoded using electromagnetic charges that are read by a decoder, translated into numbers and letters, immediately identified by the computer.
This technology is currently being applied to employee ID badges, debit cards, boarding passes for commercial flights, filling stations and some manufacturing applications.
Future technical refinements include increased data storage on the magnetic stripe, resistance to extraneous magnetic fields and improvement of readers to process dirty or damaged magnetic stripes.
Radio Frequency Data Communication RFDC systems consist of battery operated wireless computer terminals, connected by a radio link to a main computer. Typically these hand-held terminals transfer real-time data from the shop floor, where the data is collected, directly to the mainframe computer.
The devices utilize spread spectrum radio communication, which as the name implies, spreads the signal over a wide range of frequencies therefore ensuring "the signals are received, even if exposed to interference.
The three components of RFID, a transponder ID tagan antenna and a reader operate in tandem as an electronic label. Data entry into systems can now be processed through voice technology, useful when the operator is unable to key in the data manually on a keypad.
This technology allows the operator to speak the information into a microphone, using words from a pre-programmed language, which the system recognizes and converts to electronic impulses that are immediately processed by the host computer. As technology evolved to recognize voice commands, an imaging process, utilizing machine vision MV equipment can scan ID codes, objects or documents and interpret what it sees.
Used mainly in industrial environments, it is more diverse than bar coding, as it is capable of restoring damaged codes and scanning in low contrast applications. Optimally this equipment is being used in manufacturing inspection areas, to validate component dimensions, positions or other structured type tasks.
Similarly, optical character recognition OCRreads two-dimensional numbers or letters that are scanned by a light source then transmitted to a computer through electronic impulses.
BG12 One step beyond technological systems where equipment scans an identification code, a smart card uses an embedded microchip to carry large programmable databases. These cards, having the information storage capacity of a PC can distinguish between multiple services as well as provide security.
One card could, potentially be used as a bank card, grocery club card and health card. Any of the automatic data collection technologies discussed function optimally when integrated systemically throughout an entire operation or organization, resulting in shared information that increases productivity and reduces costs.
In the current corporate environment, optimization of the manufacturing processes using emerging technologies also leads to increased accuracy and throughput, which ultimately drives an increase in sales and cost reductions.
In the warehousing field, consideration to radio frequency technologies, in particular, can increase competitiveness through total product cost reduction, increased accuracy, less paperwork, savings due to rapid invoicing and higher quality of customer service, in terms of reduced lead-times and availability of goods.
There are three distinct types of radio frequency transmission technologies, narrow band, direct sequencing spread spectrum and frequency hopping spread spectrum. All have specific strengths and weaknesses and are appropriate in distinct environments.
Narrow band transmission has a limited band width that transmits on its own channel with less interference, which requires governmental authorization, but offers increased power to cover a greater area.
Conversely, spread spectrum technology has a greater band width, no channel exclusivity, can hold more information, requires no governmental licensing, but with a significant lower power level it only covers about one third the area of narrow band transmission.
Many warehouses are reluctant to implement either type of RFID given the costs and the difficulty in evaluating its advantages. RFID should reduce costs by saving on resources computer space, personnel and timewhileRadio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags and Reader Antennas Based on Conjugate Matching and Metamaterial Concepts Ph.D.
Thesis written by Gerard Zamora González Under the supervision of Jordi Bonache Albacete and Ferran Martín Antolín Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), July That the thesis entitled “Antenna design solutions for radio frequency identification (RFID) tags based on metamaterial-inspired resonators and other resonant structures” has been written by Simone Zuffanelli under their supervision, in fulfillment of the.
i MA Thesis in Entrepreneurial Management Title: Radio Frequency Identification – Evaluating supply chain benefits from a financial perspective. - Radio Frequency Identification Introduction RFID is an acronym for Radio Frequency Identification. It is an automatic identification technique that helps to identify and track the objects, people or animals through radio frequency waves.
Master's Thesis Report 1.
Multiband Fractal Antenna for Radio Frequency Identification Systems Master of Science Thesis SULTAN AHMED Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2 Micro and Nanosystems group Bionano Systems Laboratory CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF . RFID Systems and Applications in Positioning Bachelor’s Thesis Information Technology May This thesis mainly focuses on and tries to address the following questions: How do RFID tags RFID is short for Radio Frequency Identification.
A complete RFID system consists of.