The first major attacks on civilians took place inwhen violent riots erupted in Jerusalem and Jaffa. Attacks by Arabs against Jewish civilians continued during the Warincluding an ambush on a medical convoy in which 79 Jews — mostly doctors and nurses — were killed, and massacres in Kfar Etzion and Haifa. Attacks on civilians intensified in the period leading up to and following the Six Day War, including deliberate massacres of children in a school and on a school busthe murder of 11 Israeli athletes during the Olympic Games, and attacks on civilian busesapartment buildingshotelsairport terminalsand pedestrian mallsamong others. Israel responded by building the West Bank security barrier and reinforcing the Gaza barrierboth of which have proved very effective at preventing terrorist attacks.
The first demonstrations took place in central Tunisia in Decembercatalyzed by the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizia year-old street vendor protesting his treatment by local officials. The Tunisian government attempted to end the unrest by using violence against street demonstrations and by offering political and economic concessions.
Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali to step down and flee the country in January In OctoberTunisians participated in a free election to choose members of a council tasked with drafting a new constitution.
A democratically chosen president and prime minister took office in December The Egyptian government also tried and failed to control protests by offering concessions while cracking down violently against protesters. After several days of massive demonstrations and clashes between protesters and security forces in Cairo and around the country, a turning point came at the end of the month when the Egyptian army announced that it would refuse to use force against protesters calling for the removal of Pres.
However, optimism was dampened when the new administration appeared hesitant to begin a full transfer of power to an elected government and when military and security forces resumed the use of violence against protesters.
Confrontations between protesters and security forces became frequent occurrences. In these countries, however, outpourings of popular discontent led to protracted bloody struggles between opposition groups and ruling regimes.
In Yemenwhere the first protests appeared in late JanuaryPres. Yemeni demonstrators in Sanaa calling for an end to the government of Pres. Protests were violently suppressed by Bahraini security forces, aided by a force of about 1, soldiers from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates that entered the country in March.
By the end of the month, the mass protest movement had been stifled. In November an independent investigation into the uprising, commissioned by the Bahraini government, concluded that the government had used excessive force and torture against protesters.
The government vowed to act on the recommendations for reform included in the report. In Libya protests against the regime of Muammar al-Qaddafi in mid-February quickly escalated into an armed revolt.
Although NATO intervention ultimately shifted the military balance in favour of the rebel forces, Qaddafi was able to cling to power in the capital, Tripolifor several more months. He was forced from power in August after rebel forces took control of Tripoli.
After evading capture for several weeks, Qaddafi was killed in Surt in October as rebel forces took control of the city. The TNC struggled to restart the Libyan economy, establish functional institutions of government, and exert control over the many autonomous regional and tribal militias that had participated in the rebellion against Qaddafi.
In Syria protests calling for the resignation of Pres. Bashar al-Assad broke out in southern Syria in mid-March and spread through the country.
The Assad regime responded with a brutal crackdown against protesters, drawing condemnation from international leaders and human rights groups.
A leadership council for the Syrian opposition formed in Istanbul in August, and opposition militias began to launch attacks on government forces. Meanwhile, divisions in the international community made it unlikely that international military intervention, which had proved decisive in Libya, would be possible in Syria.
The arrival of a delegation of peace monitors from the Arab League in December did little to reduce violence.
The monitoring mission was suspended several weeks later over concerns for the safety of the monitors. The effects of the Arab Spring movement were felt elsewhere throughout the Middle East and North Africa as many of the countries in the region experienced at least minor pro-democracy protests.
In AlgeriaJordanMoroccoand Omanrulers offered a variety of concessions, ranging from the dismissal of unpopular officials to constitutional changes, in order to head off the spread of protest movements in their countries.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:The creation of the state of Israel and its impact. Reasons for, and outcomes of, Arab-Israeli conflicts to Arab nationalism in the s and s, and divisions in the Arab.
Arab Nationalism, World War I and the British Mandate Arab Nationalism. Before the Second Aliyah, the indigenous Arab population of Palestine had worked for and generally cooperated with the small number of Jewish settlements.
Arab nationalism (Arabic: القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
Oct 24, · Assess the impact of British intervention –21 on the growth of Arab nationalism in the ensuing decade. Assess the impact of Britain, Egypt and Suez –56 on the growth of Arab nationalism in the ensuing decade. This follows the basic principle of Arab Nationalism or Arabism, which calls for the unification of all Arab people.
The Arab world is unique in that the region shares, to a large extent, a common language, culture, history and religion. Start studying ME Chapter 7: Nasser, Egypt and Arab Nationalism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.