Political and socioeconomic revolutions have been studied in many social sciencesparticularly sociologypolitical sciences and history. Ellwoodor Pitirim Sorokinwere mainly descriptive in their approach, and their explanations of the phenomena of revolutions was usually related to social psychologysuch as Le Bon's crowd psychology theory. They can be divided into three major approaches:
See Article History Urban revolution, in anthropology and archaeologythe processes by which agricultural village societies developed into socially, economically, and politically complex urban societies.
The term urban revolution was introduced by the archaeologist V.
Childe identified 10 formal criteria that, according to his system, indicate the development of urban civilization: He saw the underlying causes of the urban revolution as the cumulative growth of technology and the increasing availability of food surpluses as capital.
For instance, there is general agreement among scholars that one of the necessary—but not sufficient—preconditions for the urban revolution is the potential for the production of storable food surpluses. Other important factors include systems for the exchange and redistribution of goods between specialized and interdependent zones, differential control over productive resources such as land and livestock, and the need for defense against raids or other forms of armed conflict.
The relative importance of these and other factors is a matter of debate among those who study the origins of agriculture. The urban revolution occurred independently in many places and at many times. It seems to have developed first in Mesopotamia, in ancient Sumeras early as bp.
Cities appeared somewhat later in Egypt. In northern China, the peoples of the Longshan culture were the first to urbanize about bp.
Urban centres were developed in North America by the Ancestral Pueblo and Mississippian peoples during the 2nd millennium bp.
Early African cities included Great Zimbabwe bp and Timbuktu about bp. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Capitalism: Capitalism is an economic system, dominant in the Western world since the breakup of feudalism, in which most means of production are privately held and production, prices, and incomes are determined by markets.
Learn more about the history of capitalism. A city is a large human settlement. Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and pfmlures.com density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process.
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What Happened in History (). Childe was a Marxist, and in these and other works he employed two key concepts to organise his discussion: the Neolithic Revolution and the Urban Revolution. Childe’s models for these revolutions largely created the V.
Gordon Childe and the Urban Revolution 9 TPR. Michael E.
Smith. 1. An argument for the cause of the present. 2. The study of man’s previous disasters, taught to ensure that future generations will never make the embarrassing mistake of repeating them, but will instead set about making new and even more complicated blunders.