Flooded delta islands e. Isolated areas of naturally inundated wetland still exist in the delta most of the wetlands in Suisun marsh are actually semi-impounded and their inundation regime does not therefore reflect the environmental conditions of naturally inundated wetlands. Forested floodplain with natural inundation regime is now limited to the Cosumnes River, and Rush Ranch in Suisun Bay is remnant salt marsh at the lower end of the system.
Sleep disturbance Disengagement How student-athletes respond to injury may differ, and there is no predictable sequence or reaction. The response to injury extends from the time immediately after injury through to the post-injury phase and then rehabilitation and ultimately with return to activity.
For most injuries, the student-athlete is able to return to pre-injury levels of activity. The team physician is ultimately responsible for the return-to-play decision, and addressing psychological issues is a significant component of this decision.
However, problematic reactions are those that either do not resolve or worsen over time, or where the severity of symptoms seem excessive. Examples of problematic emotional reactions are in the accompanying table.
Such a reaction can be a trigger for disordered eating. When a student-athlete is already at risk for disordered eating, this problematic reaction only heightens the likelihood these unhealthy behaviors will worsen.
Another problematic response to injury is depression, which magnifies other responses and can also impact recovery. Depression in some student-athletes may also be related to performance failure. When student-athletes sustain significant injuries, such as knee injuries associated with time loss from sport, they can suffer both physically as well as emotionally with a decrease in their quality of life.
When Olympic skier Picabo Street sustained significant leg and knee injuries in Marchshe battled significant depression during her recovery.
I never thought I would ever experience anything like that in my life. It was a combination of the atrophying of my legs, the new scars, and feeling like a caged animal.
Kenny McKinley, a wide receiver for the Denver Broncos, was found dead of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in September after growing despondent following a knee injury.
He had undergone surgery and was expected to be sidelined for the entire season.
These case examples demonstrate how injury can trigger significant depression and suicidal ideation. Concussion is another injury that can be very challenging for student-athletes to handle emotionally. An injury like an ACL — while it poses a serious setback to the student-athlete — at least comes with a somewhat predictable timeline for rehabilitation and recovery.
What makes concussion particularly difficult is that unlike most injuries, the timeline for recovery and return to play is unknown. With concussion, the initial period of treatment includes both cognitive and physical rest, which counters the rigorous exercise routine many student-athletes often depend on to handle stressors.
Given the emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, student-athletes often struggle with their academic demands. For the student-athlete with concussion, it is especially important — and difficult — to watch for problematic psychological responses to the injury.
Some student-athletes experience emotional symptoms as a direct result of the brain trauma that can include feeling sad or irritable.
In some cases, the psychological reaction to the concussion — rather than the concussion itself — can be the trigger for the depression. It is also important to be aware that with increasing media attention being paid to neurodegenerative diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE among professional athletes, some student-athletes might fear that even the mildest concussive injury will make them susceptible to these highly distressing outcomes.
Though there is very little known about what causes CTE or what the true incidence of CTE is, the concern for possibly developing permanent neurodegenerative disease can be paralyzing. Athletic trainers and team physicians can help educate injured student-athletes about the known risks associated with concussions and can help them focus on managing the injury in the present.
They should also be aware that student-athletes who are expressing a high level of anxiety could be experiencing a mental health condition that requires treatment by a mental health professional. Seeking treatment Injured student-athletes who are having a problematic psychological response to injury may be reticent to seek treatment.
They may be afraid to reveal their symptoms, may see seeking counseling as a sign of weakness, may be accustomed to working through pain, may have a sense of entitlement and never had to struggle, and may not have developed healthy coping mechanisms to deal with failure.
In addition, many student-athletes have not developed their identity outside of that as an athlete. Underscoring the availability of sports medicine staffs to provide for early referral and management of mental health issues is essential. This is often incredibly helpful in encouraging student-athletes to seek care.
Having programs available to educate student-athletes as well as sports medicine and administrative staffs regarding the resources available and the importance of collaborative programming helps provide appropriate care.May 01, · Obesity and addiction: the integral role of stress.
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