Effective researchers seek to avoid this difficulty by clearly explaining the meanings they assign to key terms in their investigations. If, early in the research process, you define precisely what you intend by words and phrases crucial to your project, a you help identify appropriate methods of gathering and interpreting data and b your advisors can judge at the outset how well they agree with your definitions, thereby saving you possible trouble during subsequent stages of your project. The terms key words and key phrases refer to concepts at the core of your study, concepts that must be unambiguous if you are to conduct your research with proper care and if the procedures and outcomes are to be properly understood by your reading audience.
Bibliography Glossary of Research Terms This glossary is intended to assist you in understanding commonly used terms and concepts when reading, interpreting, and evaluating scholarly research in the social sciences.
Also included are general words and phrases defined within the context of how they apply to research in the social and behavioral sciences. Acculturation -- refers to the process of adapting to another culture, particularly in reference to blending in with the majority population [e.
However, acculturation also implies that both cultures add something to one another, but still remain distinct groups unto themselves.
Accuracy -- a term used in survey research to refer to the match between the target population and the sample. Affective Measures -- procedures or devices used to obtain quantified descriptions of an individual's feelings, emotional states, or dispositions.
Aggregate -- a total created from smaller units. For instance, the population of a county is an aggregate of the populations of the cities, rural areas, etc. As a verb, it refers to total data from smaller units into a large unit.
Anonymity -- a research condition in which no one, including the researcher, knows the identities of research participants.
Baseline -- a control measurement carried out before an experimental treatment. Behaviorism -- school of psychological thought concerned with the observable, tangible, objective facts of behavior, rather than with subjective phenomena such as thoughts, emotions, or impulses.
Contemporary behaviorism also emphasizes the study of mental states such as feelings and fantasies to the extent that they can be directly observed and measured. Beliefs -- ideas, doctrines, tenets, etc. Benchmarking -- systematically measuring and comparing the operations and outcomes of organizations, systems, processes, etc.
Bias -- a loss of balance and accuracy in the use of research methods. It can appear in research via the sampling frame, random sampling, or non-response. It can also occur at other stages in research, such as while interviewing, in the design of questions, or in the way data are analyzed and presented.
Bias means that the research findings will not be representative of, or generalizable to, a wider population. Case Study -- the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including data derived from the subjects themselves.
Causal Hypothesis -- a statement hypothesizing that the independent variable affects the dependent variable in some way. Causal Relationship -- the relationship established that shows that an independent variable, and nothing else, causes a change in a dependent variable. It also establishes how much of a change is shown in the dependent variable.
Causality -- the relation between cause and effect. Central Tendency -- any way of describing or characterizing typical, average, or common values in some distribution.
Chi-square Analysis -- a common non-parametric statistical test which compares an expected proportion or ratio to an actual proportion or ratio. Claim -- a statement, similar to a hypothesis, which is made in response to the research question and that is affirmed with evidence based on research.
Classification -- ordering of related phenomena into categories, groups, or systems according to characteristics or attributes.
Cluster Analysis -- a method of statistical analysis where data that share a common trait are grouped together. The data is collected in a way that allows the data collector to group data according to certain characteristics.
Cohort Analysis -- group by group analytic treatment of individuals having a statistical factor in common to each group. Group members share a particular characteristic [e. Confidentiality -- a research condition in which no one except the researcher s knows the identities of the participants in a study.Term paper definition of terms tigers.
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Essay on given topics toefl test. Essay native language kashmiri bad diet essay incidents comparison contrast essay writing your compare. Key Terms in Academic Writing-Online Writing Center.
Knowing and understanding terms and concepts related to academic writing, and being able to apply them, will help you organize your thoughts and ultimately produce a better essay or paper.
Different ways that researchers define key terms are those of (a) offering no definitions, (b) providing synonyms, (c) furnishing sentence descriptions, (d) citing shared experience or knowledge, and (e) defining by the operations used in conducting the research.
The opening paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions.
DEFINITION OF TERMS 14 STEPS TO DEFINE TERMS IN YOUR PROPOSAL OR RESEARCH PAPER Image courtesy of (pfmlures.com) 2. Location At the start of the paper, before the major contents Image courtesy of (pfmlures.com). However, incorporating a definition of terms can greatly enhance your research paper.
Benefits of a Definition of Terms This is a useful place to include technical terms in .