It had been engaged in a centuries-long struggle between the monarchy and nobility that predated the famed Magna Charta Ever-increasing restraints were being placed on royal authority by an influential representative assembly, the Parliament, but its true flowering still lay in the future.
In the Iberian Peninsula the impetus of the counteroffensive against the Moors carried the Portuguese to probe the West African coastline and the Spanish to attempt the expulsion of Islam from the western Mediterranean.
Spain and Portugal were the bellwethers for Europe in general in the Age of Exploration, and thus it’s no exaggeration to say that the era of Western global dominance of the past half-millennium originated in the intrepid sailors and explorers of the Iberian Peninsula during the s. The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial pfmlures.com Portuguese Renaissance was a period of exploration during which Portuguese sailors discovered several Atlantic archipelagos like the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde, explored and colonized the African coast, discovered an eastern route to India that rounded the Cape of Good Hope. Its utter and famous defeat left England unchallenged as the major sea power in the world. Early Exploration and Colonization. England's early endeavors in the Western Hemisphere trailed those of Spain and France, but included the following major ventures: John Cabot was sent by Henry VII in search for the Northwest Passage to India.
In the last years of the… The exploration of the Old World From the time of the earliest recorded history to the beginning of the 15th century, Western knowledge of the world widened from a river valley surrounded by mountains or desert the views of Babylonia and Egypt to a Mediterranean world with hinterlands extending from the Sahara to the Gobi Desert and from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean the view of Greece and Rome.
It later expanded again to include the far northern lands beyond the Baltic and another and dazzling civilization in the Far East the medieval view. The earliest known surviving map, dating probably from the time of Sargon of Akkad about — bceshows canals or rivers—perhaps the Tigris and a tributary—and surrounding mountains.
The rapid colonization of the shores of the Mediterranean and of the Black Sea by Phoenicia and the Greek city-states in the 1st millennium bce must have been accompanied by the exploration of their hinterlands by countless unknown soldiers and traders.
Herodotus prefaces his History written in the 5th century bce with a geographical description of the then known world: Stories survive of a few men who are credited with bringing new knowledge from distant journeys. Herodotus tells of five young adventurers of the tribe of the Nasamones living on the desert edge of Cyrenaica in North Africawho journeyed southwest for many months across the desert, reaching a great river flowing from west to east; this presumably was the Nigeralthough Herodotus thought it to be the Upper Nile.
Exploration of the Atlantic coastlines Beyond the Pillars of Hercules the Strait of Gibraltarthe Carthaginians from the Phoenician city of Carthage in what is now Tunisiaholding both shores of the strait, early ventured out into the Atlantic.
About the same time, Himilcoanother Carthaginian, set forth on a voyage northward; he explored the coast of Spain, reached Brittany, and in his four-month cruise may have visited Britain.
Two centuries later, about bce, Carthaginian power at the gate of the Mediterranean temporarily slackened as a result of squabbles with the Greek city of Syracuse on the island of Sicilyso Pytheasa Greek explorer of Massilia Marseillesailed through.
His story is known only from fragments of the work of a contemporary historian, Timaeus who lived in the 4th and 3rd centuries bceas retold by the Roman savant Pliny the Elderthe Greek geographer Strabo, and the Greek historian Diodorus Siculusall of whom were critical of its truth.
It is probable that Pytheas, having coasted the shores of the Bay of Biscaycrossed from the island of Ouessant Ushantoff the French coast of Brittanyto Cornwall in southwestern Englandperhaps seeking tin.
Thule has been identified with Iceland too far northwith Mainland island of the Shetland group too far southand perhaps, most plausibly, with Norway. The voyage of Pytheas, like that of Hanno, does not seem to have been followed up.
From the 8th to the 11th century bands of Northmen, mainly Swedish, trading southeastward across the Russian plains, were active under the name of Varangians in the ports of the Black Sea.
At the same time, other groups, mainly Danish, raiding, trading, and settling along the coasts of the North Seaarrived in the Mediterranean in the guise of Normans.
Neither the Swedes nor the Danes traveling in these regions were exploring lands that were unknown to civilized Europeans, but it is doubtless that contact with them brought to these Europeans new knowledge of the distant northern lands.
But most Norsemen sailing in high latitudes explored not eastward but westward.
Sweeping down the outer edge of Britain, settling in OrkneyShetlandthe Hebridesand Ireland, they then voyaged on to Iceland, where in they settled among Irish colonists who had preceded them by some two centuries. The Norsemen may well have arrived piloted by Irish sailors; and Irish refugees from Icelandfleeing before the Norsemen, may have been the first discoverers of Greenland and Newfoundlandalthough this is mere surmise.
About ce, one Bjarni Herjulfssonon his way from Iceland to Greenland, was blown off course far to the southwest; he saw an unknown shore and returned to tell his tale.The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial pfmlures.com Portuguese Renaissance was a period of exploration during which Portuguese sailors discovered several Atlantic archipelagos like the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde, explored and colonized the African coast, discovered an eastern route to India that rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Spain and Portugal were the bellwethers for Europe in general in the Age of Exploration, and thus it’s no exaggeration to say that the era of Western global dominance of the past half-millennium originated in the intrepid sailors and explorers of the Iberian Peninsula during the s.
Sightseeing notes (r) = reserve a time before you leave the US * = included in Rick's Audio Europe™ app. Day 1: Welcome to Spain. Welcome to Barcelona, one of Europe's most dynamic and diverse cities. These years were largely those of the Omayyad Amirs and Caliphs, who may be said to have presided over the Golden Age of Islâmic Spain.
The suprisingly rapid decline of the Omayyads in the 11th century quickly led to complete political fragmentation and to grave vulnerability to the rising Christian Kingdoms.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of pfmlures.com also marks the rise of the period of widespread.
Portugal and the Age of Exploration The Iberian Peninsula, today home to Spain and Portugal, was overrun in the 5th century A.D. by the Visigoths, a Teutonic tribe from northern Europe and the conquerors of the Roman Empire.